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Dakar , Décembre 2012 PowerPoint Presentation
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Dakar , Décembre 2012

Dakar , Décembre 2012

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Dakar , Décembre 2012

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  1. Agence Nationale de la Météorologie Overview of Agrometeorological Assistance to the Rural World as Mean of adaption to Climate Change, Case of Mali Mr. Daouda Zan Diarra, Chef de la Division Agrométéorologie, Agence Nationale de la Météorologie, Bamako, Mali Dakar , Décembre 2012

  2. PLAN • Introduction • Priorities of rural producers • Hitory • Weather assistance to rural world • Other carried out action • Some results • Some Constraints • Perspectives • Conclusion

  3. INTRODUCTION Mali: Sahelian country – 14,5 Millions people (census of 1st at April 14, 2009) Economy: Largely dominated by Agriculture: 40% of the P.I.B Nearly 70% of the population live in rural environment including 80% directly or indirectly of rain fed agriculture Agricultural production subjected to the annual and interannual variability of rainfall like to its space-time distribution. Rainfall mode: Great dryness of 1972 and successive drynesses Reduction of the average annual rainfall of more than 20% over the successive periods 1951 - 1970 (20 years?) and 1971 - 2000, (30 years?). Actions of fight against the plague and adaptation for its harmful purposes: led to Mali, following the example other countries of the Sahel:

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF RURAL POPUALTION NEEDS AND KNOWLEDGE ON WEATHER, CLIMATE • Drought of the early seventies in Sahel region affected seriously countries; • A lot of damages were caused to agriculture, livestock and even human beings. • To assist the rural world toface the challenge, the met service undertook meteorological assistanceThe exchange with the population is a mean to collect their needs in term of • meteorological information and occasion to note some indigenous knowledge in the visited regions. • That permit to best estimate the main concern from them expressed in questions among that we can note some as: • when the rainy season will start? • What can be its duration and termination? • will appear dry spells within the season? • can the met service forecast the season three months ahead or more? • can met service forecast for each location? • can be agromet information broadcast in our local language and frequently?

  5. HISTORY To face the challenge of drynesses the authorities of the touched countries shared their efforts within the framework of the strategies of parade by the creation of the CILSS with its Specialized agencies (CRA, INSAH). On the level of the countries there was a reinforcement of capacities of the weather and hydrological services (equipment, formation). The concretization of this political good-will resulted in the setting into?uvre pilot project of agrometeorologic assistance in Mali in 1982 to attenuate the impacts of the drynesses. This project was carried out in 4 phases of which: experimental phase; phase of evaluation; phase of popularization; and phase of extension

  6. HISTORY (continued) The phases of evaluation and popularization were almost simultaneous because of the very keen demand of recipients to extend the project. This extension occurred since 1987 and nowadays five areas out of eight profit from the direct agrometeorologic assistance in the rural world.

  7. ACTORS ROLE IN THE PRODUCTION AND THE BROADCAST OF AGROMÉTÉOROLOGCAL INFORMATIONE Collecte de données (Producteur rural) Collecte et rassemblement SDR Radio de proximité ORTM Courrier Concentration des données De structure ODR Diffusion des informations Réunion du GTPA Elaboration du bulletin Agro-Hydro-Météorologique décadaire Concentration Nationale / Traitement et analyse Elaboration du Bulletin Provisoire DNM Atelier de sensibilsation sur les changements climatiques

  8. PARTENERSHIP MEMBERS OF GTPA • DNM make the products in a partnership with services within : • the rural Development structures; • the research institutes and Centres ; • the farmers’ Permanente Council; • the media (écrite et parlée); • the NGOs; • the Development Partners.


  10. CARRIED OUT ACTIONS • Development and diffusion of information and products related to weather and climate; • Transfer of competence by the training of the actors at all the levels; • Implications of these actors in the process of design and implementation of the assistance; • Equipment of the various actors; • Adaptation of the weather products to the user's needs; • Cloud seeding Program; • Devolution of the system by the creation of GLAM.

  11. MAIN ACTIVITIES • Capacity bulding for all the actors (farmers, technical agents) in the domain of collection, transmission and treatment of data; • Sensibilisation and training for peasants observators and vulgarisators on rainfall collection technics and phenological observations; • Préparation of formats for data collection and transmission and définition of their systems; • Collection and treatment of data (meteorological and agronomic in order to elaborate sowing Calendar; • Production et vulgarisation of rain gages;

  12. THE SENSIBILIZATION / TRAINIG • After identifying the population’s needs during sensibilization, training sessions are undertake on: • measure of rainfall data; • observations on crops growing steps, heath and disasters. The observer farmer and agricultural extending technicians take apart to these trainig sessions. Otherwise, special sessions are doen with communicators and elected people standing in the National Assemblee.

  13. Exposed themes during the training of extension workers Bague réceptrice • la description et l’installation du pluviomètre; • la mesure des pluies tombées dans le pluviomètre; • la transcription des hauteurs de pluies mesurées sur le fiche de collecte; Seau 1,50 m Support (Pied) • le choix des parcelles d’observations et poquets et plants à observer; 0,50 m • comment faire les observations sur les cultures dans un champ; • comment évaluer les phase de développement des plantes, les mauvaises herbes et les dommages dans le champ; • comment faire les carrés de rendement et la détermination des rendements.

  14. SANJI SQBQN JAMANA: ………….. MARA: …………. KAFO: ……………… KOMUNI: ………………. ………… DUGU: ……………… ……………………………KALO SAN 201... K%L%SILIKELA T%G% N’A JAMU: ………………………………………… Kalo kùnù sanji nalen hakq: mm …………… O sanji nadon hakq: tile: …… Kalo kùnù sanji nalen cayalenba haks: mm ……….. O sanji cayalenba na don: Kalo tile: mm ….. K’a ta zanwier kalo tile fùlù la fù ni kalo tile 30 (31) sanji nalen hakq: mm …… K’a ta zanwier kalo tile fùlù la fù ni kalo tile 30 (31) sanji nalen don hakq: tile ……

  15. Tile tan sanji nalen hakq K’a ta ………………..…… kalo tile ..……. Fù a tile ………………. San 201… Kunafoni wqrqw k’a vqsin forow cogoya ma: ……………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………

  16. Kalo tile tan: ………………. Sumanw kùlùsili sqbqn Jamana: …………….. Kubeda: …………….Dugu: ………………….. Kùlùsilikqla tùgù n’a jamu: ……………………………………………

  17. Techniques d’intervention: PROGRAMME DE PLUIE PROVOQUEE • Voie aérienne : • - Avion Laboratoire • (King-Air); • Produits d’ensemencement pour vecteurs aériens • (cartouches pyrotechniques et brûleurs hygroscopiques)  • Voie Terrestre (générateurs au sol); • Produits d’ensemencement pour vecteurs terrestres (générateurs) : iodure d’argent ; iodure de sodium ; acétone ; propane ; Journée Mondiale de l'Alimentation 2008

  18. CLIMATE SERVICES PROVIDED TO USERS • The beginning, duration, and end of the rainy season on average. • Guides for planting calendar based on rainfall measured by farmers in field. • Simple rain gauges for collecting rainfall data in the field. • Agro-hydro-meteorological bulletins on 10-day and monthly cycles, in local languages and through varied media. • Communication with the Council of Ministers about rainfall conditions and its likely evolution in Mali.

  19. For the Agromet advasce component we prepared in local languages pratical planting date guides that can be directly used by farmers. In this regard farmers are trained to carry out rainfall measurements and phenological observations by using brochures edited in their local language. A special raingauge that farmers can afford is manufactured in Mali to facilitate the use of this guide. EXAMPLE OF PLANTING DATE GUIDE CROP = SORGHUM LOCATION :KOLOKANI CROP CYCLE LENGTH : 120 DAYS DO NOT PLANT BEFORE 1 JUNE BETWEEN 1 AND 10 JUNE IF THERE IS A CUMULATIVE 10 - DAY RAINFALL OF 40 MM; BETWEEN 11 AND 20 JUNE IF THERE IS A CUMULATIVE 10 - DAY RAINFALL OF 20 MM; BETWEEN 21 AND 30 JUNE IF THERE IS A CUMULATIVE 10 - DAY RAINFALL OF 10 MM BETWEEN 1 AND 10 JULY EVEN IF DRY, BUT PREFERABLY AFTER RAIN; PLANT AFTER THIS PERIOD, IT IS RECOMMANDED TO PLANT A VARIETY WITH A SHORTER CYCLE

  20. Groupe de Travail Pluridisciplinaire D’ASSISTANCE METEOROLOGIQUE Bulletin d’Information Agro-Hydro- Météorologique Décadaire • Décade du 1er au 10 septembre 2009 Sommaire: I. Situations météorologique et hydrologique II. État des cultures et Situation phytosanitaire III. Pâturages, points d’eau et mouvement des animaux IV. État de la végétation V. Situation zoo sanitaire VI. Perspectives VII. Avis et Conseils

  21. OTHER CARRIED OUT ACTIONS • METAGRI Project; • ANADIA Project; • IWMI Project; • CCAFS Project.

  22. METAGRI Project - Roving Seminars on Weather, Climate and Agriculture for Farmers in West Africa • GOAL: • The aim of these seminar is “to bring the peasants to better using information on weather and the climate for an effective management of the risks related on weather and the climate and a rational use of the natural resources within the framework of the agricultural production”. • SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: • to gather the peasants in a given sector; • to inform and sensitize the peasants on the effects of time, the climate and the climate changes on the breding activities; • to form a core of the peasants chosen among the people taking part in the seminar on the data-gathering; • to provide pluviometers to the trained peasants. • fournir des pluviomètres aux paysans formés.

  23. Phase I: 8-10 roving seminars were organized in Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal from Sep 2008 to Jan 2009 Phase II: 10 roving seminars in Benin, Cape Verde, Gambia, Guineé, Guineé-Bissau, and Togo from July to Sept 2009 & 3 additional seminars in Phase I countries Phase III: Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone in 2011 – Additional seminars in Phase I and II countries Evaluation and Communications Semminar 26 – 30 Sept 2011 at Bamako. 24


  25. 2009 Seminar – Farmers ask Questions 26

  26. PROJET ANADIA • OBJECTIVES: • to characterize the evolution and the impact of the dryness by the analysis of the last episodes (frequency, intensity, duration and extension); • to evaluate the precision and the reliability of the systems of follow-up and forecast of the dryness.

  27. Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 31mai 2012 Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 30 juin 2012 Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 31 juillet 2012 Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 31 août 2012 Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 31 octobre 2012 Pluviométrie cumulée du 1er mai au 30 sept 2012

  28. DETECTION OF RISK ZONES OF DROUGTH 31 Mai 30 Juin 31 Juillet 31 Août 30 Septembre 31 Octobre

  29. MOIS D’OCTOBRE • Pluies de la troisième décade d’octobre déficitaires dans l’ensemble excepté les localités de Ouélessébougou, Sikasso, Bougouni, Yanfolila, Koutiala et San; • Cumul des pluies recueillies du 1er mai au 31 octobre 2011 normal à excédentaire excepté le Nord Ouest de la région de Kayes, l’Est de celle de Ségou, le Sud-Est de celle de Mopti où il est déficitaire.; • Cumul reste inférieur à celui de l’année dernière de façon générale. Pluviométrie cumulée par rapport à celle de 2010 Pluviométrie cumulée par rapport à la normale Pluviométrie décadaire par rapport à la normale

  30. Activities: • Climatic study of the impacts of the dryness for the Area of Ségou and the ten villages test; • Development of the component “dryness” of the Village Plans of Reduction of Risk (PVRR) of the ten villages test; • Training of the observant peasants in the 10 villages test; • Translation will bamanankan of them PVRR of the 10 villages test; • Sensitizing PVRR by the Work groups Multi-field/Groups Room d' Weather assistance (GTP/GLAM); • Participation in the organization of formation PVRR and the national conference. to evaluate the precision and the reliability of the systems of follow-up and forecast of the dryness.

  31. PROJET CCAFS • Workshops that held in Bamako and Cinzana in to june on the communication of the results of the seasonal forecasts; • missions to follow the use of the application of the seasonal forecasts by the farmers; • identification of the climate risks in the concerned locations; • colection and analysis of rainfall data from the project villages.

  32. SOME RESULTS -CONTRIBUTION TO FOOD SECURITY AND ADAPTATION TO C.C ● Reduction of the percentage of replanting (40% TO 5%) ; ● Increase of crop yield ≥ 20% ; ● In 1998 the use of met and agromet information prevented the agricultural season from total failure ; ● In January 2002 Forecast of «  OUT OF SEASON » rain allowed the National Cotton Company (CMDT) to save MILLIONS OF US $ ; ● National MET SERVICE is a member of the National Council for Aggricultural Advice; ● Strengthning of adaptive capavity to cope with Climate Change ; ● Building of awareness on Climate issues ; ● Transfert of technologies to rural people ; ● Promotion of integration of Climate variability and Climate Change to development process.

  33. SOME CONSTRAINTS • Limitation in estimated sowing calendar of the crops: only 5 crops are concerned; • Limited nomber of GLAM, insufficiency of equipment and training of its members; • Technological limitation as regards local weather and climate forecasting; • Lack especially logistical means for the activities of the follow-up; • No coverage of the areas of North; • No satisfaction of some needs for the rural world especially in information of proximity ; • Insufficiency of equipment and financial means which did not allow yet the cover of the other areas in operational assistance.

  34. PERSPECTIVES • Continuation of the sensibilization and training actions in order to adapt the transferred tools; • Continuation of roving seminars; • Continuation of the equipment, the reinforcement and the modernization of the means of collection, transmission, treatment and dissemination; • Bring a support to the GLAM in order to bring closer the rural producers more; • Continuation of the improvement of the especially localized seasonal forecasts;

  35. PERSPECTIVES (continued) • Generalisation of the information system to the country with the capability building (financial supports from LDCF, GEF and other required Partners) ; • Production of meteorological and climate forecasts specialy downscaling ; • Integration of the indigenous knowlege into the system – Local Coping Strategies ; • Transfert of the local operation system of decentralized communities; • finalization of the analyse of the data from CCAFS selected villages of Cinzana rural commune.

  36. CONCLUSION • The weather assistance became a powerful tool for economic and social development which allowed inter alia: • the improvement of the weather services; • the availability for the producers and the decision makers of tools of decision-making aid; • the increase in the outputs and the quality of the productions; • the limitation of the losses and risks; • the reduction in the production costs; • the reinforcement of capacity of the various actors; • the undertake actions to adapt to climate change in Cinzan rural Commune; • the safeguarding of the environment. Journées GTPA 2007

  37. In the context of Climate change, the use of météorological and climatic products for decision making decision in the rural activities contribute to the implementation of a sustainable agriculture and food security.

  38. Thank you Notre contact; AGENCE NATIONALE DE LA METEOROLOGIE BP : 237 Bamako MALI Tél. : 00 (223) 20 20 62 04 Fax : 00 (223) 20 20 21 10 .ml